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Dyatlov Geçidi Vakası

2020.11.28 21:13 MRmEaseeks Dyatlov Geçidi Vakası

"Şimdiden uyarmak lazım, yazı biraz ürkütücü. Korku filmlerinde işlenen "Vahşi doğanın kucağında bilinmeyen varlıklarla mücadele eden gençler" temasının gerçek yaşamdaki bir örneğine tanık olacağız. Bir grup kayakçı, Ural Dağları'nda geziye çıkarlar ancak esrarengiz bir dizi olay onları deliliğin sınırlarına ve ölüme sürükler. Gerilim filmi konusu gibi duruyor değil mi? Ama bir zamanlar Rusya'yı çalkalayan ve sonradan unutulan bu olay gerçek.
Yolculuktan önce 27 Ocak 1959 günü Sovyet Rusya'da dokuz genç kayakçı Ural dağları'nın uçsuz bucaksız eteklerinde 2 haftalık bir tırmanış ve kayak gezisi için yola çıktılar.Igor dyatlov, Zinaida Kolmogorova, Lyudmila Dubinina, Alexander Kolevatov, Rustem Slobodin, Georgyi Krivonischenko, Yuri Doroshenko, Nicolas Thibeaux-Brignollel, Alexander Zolotarev. Aslında 10 kişiydiler ancak bir tanesi sağlık problemleri yüzünden son anda geride kalınca yola 2 kadın 7 erkek çıktılar.
Yolculukları kuzey'deki en son yerleşim birimi olan vizhai'den otorten dağı'na kadardı. rotaları dağcılıkta en zor kategori olarak bilinen "kategori 3" sınıfındaydı ancak başta liderleri igor dyatlov olmak üzere takım kendilerinden çok emindi. her biri tırmanış ve uzun kayak gezisi tecrübeleri olan yetenekli sporculardı. 2 haftadan fazla bir süre dondurucu soğukla mücadele edecek olmaları ve tehlikeli rotaları gözlerini korkutmuyordu. takımın deneyimden kaynaklanan bir cesareti vardı ve hiç birisi kolay kolay korkuya kapılacak insanlar değillerdi.
gezi planına göre grup vizhai kasabasına geri döndükten sonra dyatlov hemen bağlı oldukları spor klubüne telgraf çekecekti. 12 şubat günü kararlaştırıldığı gibi telgraf gelmediğinde kimse bir tepki vermedi. bu tür zorlu gezilerde gecikmeler neredeyse her zaman olurdu. birkaç gün sonra birşeylerin ters gitmiş olabileceği ihtimali düşünülmeye başlandı.
sporcuların ailelerinin ısrarı üzerine enstitü bir kurtarma ekibi oluşturarak 20 şubat 1959'da arama çalışmalarına başladı. polisin ve ordunun da helikopterler ve uçaklarla katıldığı arama 6 gün sonra, grubun varış noktasından 10 km uzaklıktaki kholat-syakhl dağında ilk sonucunu verdi; bu aynı zamanda kurtarma ekibinin yaşadığı ilk şoktu.
ekip kamp çadırını oldukça tahrip olmuş halde buldu. bir dizi ayak izi yakındaki ağaçlık alana gidiyor ancak 500 metre sonra karla örtülüyordu. ağaçlık alanda büyük bir çam ağacının altında bir kamp ateşinin kalıntılarıyla birlikte ilk iki ceset bulundu. cesetlerin üzerinde sadece iç çamaşırları vardı. daha sonra bulunan üç ceset ateş ve kamp arasındaydı ve durumlarına bakarak kampa geri dönmeye çalıştıkları düşünüldü. üç ceset arasında yaklaşık 150'şer metre mesafe vardı.
bulunan cesetlerin incelenmesi sonucu sporcuların hipotermi, yani vücut ısısının aşırı düşmesi sonucu öldükleri saptandı. bir tanesinde kafatası zedelenmesine rastlandı ancak ölümcül değildi. diğerlerinde ise hiçbir tahribat yoktu.
diğer 4 cesedin bulunması biraz uzun sürdü. araştırma ekibi 4 mayıs'ta ikinci şokunu yaşadı. bir nehir yatağında, 4 metre karın altında kalan cesetleri buldular. ilk iki cesede göre daha uzaktaydılar ve diğerlerinden bir farkları vardı. 3 tanesi şiddetli darbe sonucu ölmüşlerdi. bir tanesinde ölümcül derecede kafatası zedelenmesi vardı, ikisinin ise göğüs kafesleri parçalanmıştı. uzmanlar bu tür hasarları verebilecek bir gücün, bir araba kazasına eşdeğer olması gerektiğini söylediler. dikkate değer bir nokta ise cesetlerin hiçbirinde dıştan gelen yaralanma olmamasıydı, yüksek basınç sonucu ezilmiş gibiydiler. otopside kadınlardan birinin dilinin kayıp olduğu görüldü. araştırma kapsamında ilk keşifte bulunan günlükler ve amatör video kayıtları incelendiğinde (blair witch? cloverfield? rec? noroi?) ortaya çıkar ki, grup 31 ocak günü dağlık araziye varmış ve tırmanışa hazırlanmıştır. dönüş için yiyecek ve ekipmanları için ormanlık alanda bir stok çadırı kurduktan sonra 1 şubat'ta tırmanışlarına başlarlar. hesaplarına göre 1 günde tırmanışı bitirip ertesi gece kampı öteki tarafta kuracaklardır. ne var ki giderek sertleşen hava, kar fırtınaları ve azalan görüş mesafesi bir şekilde onları hedefleri olan otorten dağı yerine mansi dilinde "ölüm dağı" anlamına gelen kholat syakhl'a götürür. dağın ismi hariç buraya kadar yaşananlarda pek olağandışı bir durum yok. kampta bulunanlar buradan sonra ne yaşadıklarına dair bir ipucu vermiyor.
her ne kadar cesetlerdeki hasarın insan gücüyle yapılmış olamayacağı söylense de rus polisi bir cinayet olasılığını düşünerek adli araştırmalara başlar. böylece zaten soru işaretleriyle dolu olan olaya bir yenisi eklenir: radyasyon. cesetlerin üzerlerindeki giysilerde radyoaktif kirlenme vardır.
ural bölgesinde yaşayan mansi yerlilerinden şüphelenen polis geniş çaplı bir arazi taraması yaptığında çevrede hiç insan izine rastlayamaz. zaten kamp alanı etrafında sporculardan başkasına ait ayak izi yoktur.
deliller detaylı incelenince birkaç ilginç nokta daha göze çarpar. kamp çadırı dışarıdan değil de içeriden yırtılmış gibidir. ormanlık alanda ateş yakan grup üyeleri çok yakında duran kuru dalları değil de nedense ıslak dalları kullanmışlardır.
genç sporculara ne olduğu tam bir merak konusu olur. gazeteler olaya geniş yer verir. komplo teorileri üretilmekte geç kalınmaz.
eldeki verileri gözden geçirince, yapılabilecek en kesin varsayım birşeyin grubun ödünü kopardığı. üzerlerine giysi giymeden çadırı yırtıp çıkarak ormanın içine koşmuşlar (tabii neden üzerlerinde giysileri olmadığı yine muamma). daha sonra ormanın girişinde durup ateş yakmışlar. aralarından ikisi (ölü ya da canlı) ateşin yanında kalırken üçü kampa geri dönmeye karar vermiş ancak yolda birer birer ölmüşler. dördü ise ya önceden ya sonradan ormanın içlerine ilerlemiş. bir varsayıma göre grubun düzensiz hareketi ve ateş yakarken çok yakındaki kuru dalları kullanmamalarından kör oldukları düşünülüyor. bu ilk bulunan cesetlerin birindeki kafatası zedelenmesini de açıklayabilir, zira kör birisinin ormanda koştururken ağaçlara çarpması gayet doğal.
peki bu gözüpek sporcuları ölesiye(gerçekten ölesiye) korkutan şey neydi? ayı veya başka bir yabani hayvan olsaydı eğer yaralanmaları gerekirdi. etrafta da ayak izleri, mücadeleye dair izler olurdu. hem radyasyon?
rus polisi ve kgb bu bilmeceyi çözemiyor (ya da halka öyle söyleniyor). mayıs 1959'da dosya kapanıyor. sporcuların hepsinin "bilinmeyen zorlayıcı bir güç" yüzünden öldükleri söyleniyor. olay dosyası resimleriyle birlikte gizli bir arşive yollanıyor. resimler ancak 1990'da ortaya çıkıyor - eksik olarak.
1967'de, araştırmalar sırasında görev almış ve fotoğrafçılık yapmış olan gazeteci yazar yuri yarovoi olaydan esinlenerek "en yüksek derecede karmaşa" isimli bir roman yazıyor. ancak sovyet yönetiminin olayla ilgili bilgileri sır olarak sakladığı bir dönemde yazıldığı için pek çok detayı es geçtiği biliniyor. tanıdıkları ise yazarın romanın yayınlanmamış detaylı bir kopyası olduğunu söylüyorlar. yazar 1980'de hayatını kaybettikten sonra yazarın fotoğraflar, günlükler ve el yazılarından oluşan arşivi bulunamıyor.
1990'da yazar anatoly guschin olayla ilgili bir araştırma yapıyor. rus yetkililerin ona tanıdığı ayrıcalıklar sayesinde bazı fotoğrafları ve önceden bilinmeyen detayları gün ışığına çıkarıyor. pek çok belgenin ortadan kaybolduğunu farkediyor. araştırmasıyla ilgili "sırların bedeli dokuz yaşam" isimli bir kitap yazıyor. kitapta sovyet yönetiminin gizli araştırmaları sonucu geliştirilen bir "gizli silah" teorisine ağırlık veriliyor.
kitabın verdiği cesaretle 1959'da araştırmayı yürütmüş olan emekli polis subayı lev ivanov bir makale yazıyor. makalede araştırma timinin olaya hiçbir açıklama getiremediğini söylüyor. en önemli nokta ise, ivanov'un iddiasına göre gökyüzünde bazı "uçan küreler" görmüş oldukları. üstlerine bunu rapor ettikten sonra timin araştırmayı bırakması ve bulguları gizli tutması emri geliyor. ayrıca olayın olduğu tarihte grubun rotasından 50km güneyde olan bir yürüyüş grubu kuzeyde garip turuncu küreler gördükleri ve o çevrede şubat ve mart aylarında meteoroloji yetkilileri ve askerler dahil değişik kişilerden benzer raporlar geldiği biliniyor. araştırmalarda bu tanıklar gözardı edilmiş.
grup lideri igor dyatlov'un adı geçide veriliyor. sovyet yönetimi olayla ilgili detayları tüm gücüyle gizliyor. ufolar mı, paranormal varlıklar mı, gizli ordu araştırmaları mı bilinmez ama ortada alışık olmadığımız birşeyler olduğu kesin. 1959'da kholat syakhl'da o zavallı dokuz gence ne oldu sorusu hala yanıtsız."
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2019.10.10 18:11 bikingfencer Lamentations - introductions

LAMENTATIONS  
Introductions  
Theophile J. Meek, The Interpreters’ Bible, volume VI  
Since the Old Testament is an anthology of the literature of the ancient Hebrews, it contains many different types. Among these is the elegy, well represented by the book of Lamentations, whose five chapters are five separate poems, each complete in itself.  
I. Title  
The book … was known by its first word, ’êkhāh, which is an exclamatory particle, meaning “How!” By the rabbis, however, it came to be called Qînôth, “Dirges” or “Lamentations…  
The dirge seems to have originated as a funeral spell to keep the dead in their place and protect the living from them, and its composition was in the hands of women professionals (cf. [compare with] Jer. [Jeremiah] 9:17-22). In course of time, however, it came to be a genuine expression of grief over the loss of a loved one (cf. II Sam. [Samuel] 1:17-27). In Lamentations (cf. Amos 5:12; Ezek. [Ezekiel] 26:17-18) it is a poem commemorating the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians in 586 B.C. and is similar to the laments which the Sumerians composed over the fall of some of their great cities, particularly Ur. However, only chs. [chapters] 1-2; 4 are dirges in the strict sense of the word; ch. [chapter] 3 is a personal lament, ending in a prayer, and ch. 5 is a prayer.  
II. Place in the Canon  
In the Hebrew Bible the book is in the third division, the Writings, as the third of the five Megilloth or Rolls, the others being the Song of Songs, Ruth, Ecclesiastes, and Esther. In the Septuagint [the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible] it came to be placed in the second division, after Jeremiah… Like the other Megilloth, Lamentations is used liturgically, being read in the synagogue on the ninth of Ab, the fast day observed in commemoration of the destruction of Jerusalem. Its canonicity seems never to have been questioned.  
III. Literary Form  
Chs. 1-4 are alphabetic acrostics of twenty-two stanzas, one for each letter of the Hebrew alphabet in their usual order in ch. 1, but with ע [`] and פ [P] transposed in chs. 2-4. In chs. 1- 3 the stanzas contain three lines each, with the exception of 1:7 and 2:19, which have four lines. Ch. 4 consists of two-line stanzas exclusively. In ch. 3 all three lines of each stanza begin with the same letter and each line carries a verse number (cf. Ps. [Psalm] 119). Ch. 5 is not an acrostic, but it contains twenty-two lines, corresponding to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet (cf. Pss. [Psalms] 33; 38; 103). It is possible that this was a first draft which the author intended later to work into an acrostic. The acrostic structure is found in Prov. [Proverbs] 31:10-31 and rather often in the Psalter. Doubtless it was originally used because of a belief in the magic power of the acrostic, but in course of time the form became traditional, and it also functioned as an aid to memory.  
IV. Metrical Structure  
It was in Lamentations that metrical structure was first definitely recognized in Hebrew poetry, and it was from the name of this book that the meter of chs. 1-4 came to be called qînāh. The regular form is a line of two stichs (a distich) of irregular length, the first with three feet, indicated by stresses, and the second with two feet – that is 3+2. It used to be thought that this was the only form of the qînāh meter, but we know now that this dominant form has 2+3 and 2+2 as variants, and in place of the usual distich there may be an occasional tristich (e.g. [for example], 3+2+2). Even a casual glance at chs. 1-4 will show that a line like 1:3a or 1:14c can be construed only as 2+3, and another like 1:1b or 1:19b as 2+2, and these are assuredly not to be taken as changes in meter, which is consistently qînāh throughout. Neither is the caesura to be put in an unnatural place in the 2+3 line simply to make it 3+2; and in the 2+2 line another word is not to be introduced nor is a single word in the first stich to be given two stresses to make it the regular 3+2. Since parallelism in thought is basic to Hebrew poetry, the balancing units are thought units; hence each stress unit must be a thought unit, and since part of a word cannot be a thought unit, no word can be given two stresses, despite current practice to the contrary. The only recourse, accordingly, for a 2+2 line in a 3+2 context is to take it as a variant. Another variant is the tristich, as, for example, in line 1:16a, which is clearly to be scanned as 3+2+2. The existence of the tristich, demonstrated as long ago as 1905 by W. H. Cobb, is not as generally recognized as it should be.  
It may be objected that this interpretation of Hebrew meter is too elastic, but if one follows the usual rigid system, he is forced continually to do one of three things: either have more frequent changes of meter in a single poem than are found in any other literature, or give a single word two stresses, or emend the text. An elastic metrical interpretation that fits the facts is surely better than a rigid one to which the facts have to be fitted…  
“In ch. 5, as already indicated, there is a change in literary form, and there is likewise a change in meter from 3+2 to 3+3, which occasionally has the variant 3+2, as in 5:2, or the variant 2+2+2, as in 5:3, or even 2+2+3, as in 5:1.  
V. Authorship, Date, and Provenance  
The tradition that Jeremiah was the author of Lamentations is ancient and persistent. It manifestly had its origin in the statement in II Chr. [Chronicles] 35:25: “So Jeremiah composed a lamentation for Josiah, and all the men and women singers speak of Josiah in their lamentations down to the present, and they made them a rite for Israel: in fact, they are written in the Lamentations.”…  
… There is much in the vocabulary and phraseology of Lamentations that is found also in Jeremiah … and there is as well some likeness in general tone and temper between the two books. Jeremiah was highly emotional in temperament and was often given to sorrow and lamentation, but his traditional reputation as the weeping prophet (“jeremiad” being a synonym of “dirge”) rests, not on his own book, but on his professed authorship of Lamentations, and that would seem to be quite impossible despite the strength of the tradition.  
For one thing, if there had been any general belief when the prophetic books were canonized that Lamentations was written by Jeremiah, it would assuredly have been included with the Prophets and not left for the Writings, which was the last portion of the Old Testament to be canonized. The fact that it was canonized so late shows that the tradition connecting it with Jeremiah was late…  
Despite the likenesses between Lamentations and the book of Jeremiah, there are certain marked differences which far outweigh the similarities. The ideas of the two books differ radically on a number of points. Lamentations has a much higher regard for kings, princes, and priests than Jeremiah ever had. Jeremiah’s opinion of Zedekiah (37:17-20), his house (22:13-130), the nobles (5:4-9), and the priests (2:26-28…) stands in marked contrast to that expressed in Lam. [Lamentations]… Passages like 1:4… show a concern for the cultus that is quite foreign to Jeremiah. In 4:17 the author identifies himself with those who had expected help from Egypt, whereas Jeremiah had affirmed that such a hope was utterly vain (37:5-10). Jeremiah could hardly have written Lam. 5:7, which is a direct contradiction of Jer. 31:29-30… The particle ש [Sh] is never used as the relative in Jeremiah, but it appears a number of times in Lamentations… There are also a large number of other words in Lamentations that are not found in Jeremiah; we have in the latter a more ordinary vocabulary, lacking the many hapax legomena [words that don’t appear anywhere else] and unusual words found in the former. In fact, Lamentations would seem to have closer affinities with books other than Jeremiah – chs. 2 and 4 with Ezekiel, chs. 1 and 5 with Second Isaiah, and all five chapters with the Psalms. This suggests that the five poems were not written by a single author at all, and that is indicated also by the difference in the alphabetic order of the stanzas, already noted, between ch. 1 and chs. 2-4, and by the difference in character, style, point of view, and historical background among the poems…  
Chs. 2 and 4 have most in common and are generally supposed to be the work of a single author. … Ch. 5 is nearest in general character to ch. 3, but it is manifestly earlier. Since 5:18 shows that the temple had not yet been rebuilt and 5:7 indicates a time at least one generation after the catastrophe of 596 we may date it about 530 B.C.  
The poems were put together in a single collection, not because of common authorship, but because of common theme and common use in the cultus. They came from different authors and different dates, but they were probably all composed in Palestine, although chs. 2 and 4 may be of Babylonian origin. The latter are the highest in literary merits, with ch. 1 a close second, then ch. 5, and finally ch. 3, the most artificial and least artistic of all. The poems are not the spontaneous outpouring of sorrow that we would expect form a man like Jeremiah, but a work of conscious art, with the grief restrained and measured, but poignant nevertheless, and well suited to liturgical usage. They are universally recognized as a classic of their kind. (Meek, 1956, pp. VI 3-5)  
Michael D. Guinan, O.F.M, The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, 1990  
The received Hebr. [Hebrew] text is in relatively good condition, but there are still places where the exact trasnl. [translation], syntax, and meaning are obscure.

In the year 587, on either the 7th (2 Kgs [Kings] 25:8-9) or the 10th (Jer 52:12) of the 5th month, Ab (July-Aug.), the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and its Temple and deported a large segment of the population, leaving only the poorest and the weakest… the five poems… were almost certainly composed… in response to this crisis in the political, social, and religious life of ancient Israel. Since some kind of ritual mourning continued to be carried out at the site of the Temple after is destruction (Jer 41:4-5…) it is possible that these laments were use in such a setting.

The erroneous belief that Lam 4:20 referred to Josiah would have led to connecting Lam with Jeremiah, who became the patron of lamentations, as did Moses of law, David of psalms, and Solomon of wisdom… it is easier to explain how the name of Jeremiah was attached to an originally anonymous composition than how an authentic Jeremian authorship would be completely lost in the Hebr [Hebrew] text tradition…

How was Israel to understand religiously the trauma of its recent history? Several options were open: return to a more wholehearted devotion to the gods of Canaan (Jer 44:15-19); worship the obviously stronger gods of Babylon (see Isa [Isaiah] 40:18-20; 441:21-24); remain within Yahwism and seek there some understanding of the present suffering… Lam was probably one of the earliest attempts to do the latter.

Lam recognized that its present suffering is not the sign of Yahweh’s weakness, but just the opposite. It is Yahweh’s power which punishes them. Israel’s enemies are mentioned on occasion (1:21-22…), but more often they fade from sight. Yahweh has become Israel’s main enemy (2:1-9), destroying both people and Temple.  
Israel has become enemy to Yahweh because of its sin; that is the real cause of the destruction. While all have sinned, the religious leaders are held esp. [especially] accountable (e.g., 2:14…). Words of confession come from Zion (1:18…) and the people (3:42…)… Violation of the covenant has brought on covenant curse. Compare 1:15, 18 with Deut [Deuteronomy] 28:41… There is no hint that this is unjust; in fact, “Yahweh is righteous, I have disobeyed his command” (1:18).

The traditional ascription of Lam to Jeremiah gave rise to … in art … Michelangelo’s painting of a sorrowing Jeremiah on the Sistine Chapel ceiling.  
Figure 1 Michelangelo’s Jeremiah - Wikipedia  
In music, Lam has proven more popular; the major composers of the 16th cent. set them to music. After a decline of interest, some 20th-cent. composers (e.g., Leonard Bernstein, Igor Stravinsky have returned to these texts for inspiration…  
…Later Judaism assigned Lam to be read on the 9th of Ab. The First Temple was destroyed by Babylon on either the 7th or 10th of Ab; the Second Temple, by Titus and the Romans on the 10th of Ab, AD 70, and the last stronghold of Bar Cochba at Beth-Ter by the Romans on the 9th of Ab, 135. The Talmud [the ancient Hebrew and Aramaic commentary] settles on the 9th of Ab as the day on which great disasters occurred, thus making it one of the saddest days of the Jewish calendar…  
Among early Christian writers, 4:201 was a very popular text interpreted in reference to Jesus… Lam made its way too into the Christian liturgy, being read in the Office for the last three days of Holy Week. It was for these especially that many of the musical settings were composed. Thus the expression of sorrow, the confession of sins, and the hope in God’s continuing mercy found in Lam were transferred by both religious communities to traumatic events in their respective histories.” (Guinan, 1990, pp. 558-560)  
FOOTNOTES  
1 Lamentations 4:20  
“The spirit of our nostrils, anointed YHVH,
we are taken in their slaughter of which we spoke,
in his shadow we live in nations.”
 
An Amateur's Journey Through the Bible
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2018.07.22 22:07 galaxyrocker кирип моорлаңар - This week's language of the week: Tuvan!

Tuvan (Тыва дыл, Tıwa dıl; [tʰɯˈʋa tɯl]; also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan or Tuvine) is a Turkic language spoken by slightly fewer than 300,000 in the Tuva Republic in south-central Siberia. Diaspora groups of Tuvan people that speak varying dialects can also be found in Mongolia and China.

Linguistics

As a Sayan Turkic language, Tuvan is closely related to the Tofa language, a moribund language in Russia's Irkutsk Oblast, which it once formed a dialect continuum with. From being a Turkic language in general, it is more distantly related to other languages such as Tatar (not to be confused with Crimean Tatar, to which they're both related as well), Kyrgyz, and of course everyone's favourite language, Uzbek.
Classification
Tuva's full classification is as follows:
Turkic (Proto-Turkic) > Common Turkic > Siberian Turkic > South Siberian > Sayan Turkic > Tuvan
Phonology and Phonotactics
Tuvan has 16 different vowel phonemes, contrasting 8 different qualities and 2 different lengths. Tuvan also has 8 'low-pitch' vowels that appear in word-initial syllables. Foг most sрakегs, this is rеalizеd as very low modаl voice, which hаs the aсoustiс сorгelate of low pitсh (low fundamental frеquеnсy). Early studies analyzed these as separate vowels, giving a total number of 24 vowel phonemes; however, following Anderson & Harrison (1999), from which this work draws, here they are analyzed as suprasegmental features. Thus, in the IPA, the phonemic vowels are /i y e ø ɯ u a o/ and their long counterparts. Note that, throughout this write-up, the vowels /y ø ɯ/ might be written with their turcological symbols, ü ö ɨ/ï, respectively.
Like most Turkic languages, Tuvan has a process of vowel harmony, inherited from Proto-Turkic, which already had it fully formed. Tuvan has two types of vowel harmony, Back and Round. Because of Tuvan's perfectly symmetrical vowel system, both classes contain four phonemes and no phonemes are left out of the harmony processes, i.e. there are no neutral vowels.
Out of these two, back harmony is the most robust. The process of back harmony means that either all vowels must be front vowels (the first four listed above) or back vowels (the last four). Vowels in suffixes take their cue from the closest vowel to the left, whether it's in the root or another suffix. Thus all Tuvan suffixes have at least two allomorphs, one for front vowels, and one for back vowels. An example of this is given in is-ter-im-den ('footprint-PL-1-ABL), at-tar-ïm-dan (name-PL-1-ABL), where you can see the front and back alternations of the three suffixes. Back vowel harmony arises even when consonant clusters from borrowed words are simplified by vowel epenthesis, showing just how robust this type of vowel harmony is.
Unlike other Turkic languages, such as Uzbek, where vowel harmony only applies weakly (and might be more of a relic than applying at all), Tuvan only has four morphological suffixes exceptions to back vowel harmony, allative, diminutive, durative and sequential. They may be classified respectively as invariant (non-alternating) elements (allative), borrowed suffixal elements (diminutive), or fused elements (durative, sequential). Other exceptions to back harmony occur in some compound words, through ablaut (an intensive form is created by applying ablaut to the second vowel of a disyllabic adjective; this ablauted vowel is always front, regardless of the first vowel) as well as due to co-articulatory features in fluent speech. The latter of these causes disharmony in several other Turkic languages as well.
Round harmony, on the other hand, is much more restricted in its appearance. Under round harmony, high vowels that follow a round vowel must also be round. Thus, round harmony only targets two vowels, /i/ and /ï/, which become realized as /ü/ and if the vowel before them is a round vowel. The only time the rounded high vowels appear in post-initial syllables is when this process of vowel harmony takes place. Native words thus contain no examples of a round vowel followed by a high unrounded vowel. Furthermore, due to phonotactic contrasints, no rounded vowel may follow an unrounded vowel. Thus the only time that the mid-rounded vowels, /ö/ and /o/ occur in native words is in the initial vowel position, with a few exceptions that originally derived from compound words.
There are 19 native Tuvan consonant phonemes, with two more appearing only in loan words. Tuvan consonants undergo a predictable pattern of surface changes when they are realized in a word. Tuvan bilabial stops only contrast in word-initial position. For some speakers, the contrast between [b]/[p] and [d]/[t] is one of (weak) voicing, while for other speakers they are contrasted by aspiration.
No onset clusters exist in native Tuvan words, being limited solely to borrowings. Only two possible clusters exist in the coda - [rt] and [jt]. All other word-internal clusters are heterosyllabic (i.e. they occur in two different syllables). The following syllable types are attested in native Tuvan words: V, VV, VC, VVC, VCC, CV, CVV, CVC, CVVC, CVCC. Stress in Tuvan is weak, and falls on the final syllable of a word. This stress is not sensitive to vowel quality, thus it is not attracted to long vowels; if suffixes are added, the stress typically shifts to the final suffix, though there are a few non-stress-bearing suffixes.
Morphology and Syntax
Tuvan, like all Turkic languages, is an agglutinative language, meaning suffixes are tacked on to the ends of words, often forming one long word that could represent a full English sentence. However, Tuvan does have a few morphological processes -- elision, vowel lengthening and reduplication -- which are not agglutinative.
Tuvan's basic word order is subject-object-verb. Noun phrases and verb phrases are head-final, with the maximum expansion of the noun phrase being [Demonstrative-Possessive-Adjective Phrase-Noun] and the verb phrase being [Direct Object - Indirect Object- Subject - Verb]. Some freedom is permitted within the verb-phrase for focus, with objects that move closer to the verb being more focused; however, the verb always occurs finally. Postpositions are also used in the language.
Tuvan makes no morphological distinction based on noun class/gender. However, there is one exception, the words meaning 'old' and 'young', which have different words based on whether the object is animate (people, animals, trees, the heart, etc.) or inanimate (things, plants, body parts). The animate words for old and young are, respectively, kirgan and anyak; the inanimate ones are, respectively, èrgi and čaa, with the latter also meaning 'new'. Tuvan likewise has no definite articles, with the demonstratives taking its place when something needs to be overtly marked.
However, despite not making any morphological distinctions based on noun class, Tuvan nouns do decline for seven cases -- nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, ablative and allative -- as well as for plurality. The plural marker precedes any possessive and case affixes. Nouns that are quantified by a number generally do not take the plural suffix, and ones that take a numerical-qualifier can take the plural to give a distributive meaning (i.e. 'I have read many different books').
The base case of Tuvan nouns is the nominative case, which is also the unmarked case. The nominative case is used to mark the subject of the sentence, as well as the first nominal in a two-part possessive construction. It's also used in constructions with 'auxiliary' nouns. Furthermore, it is used for an indefinite direct object of a transitive verb.
The ablative case is used to mark motion away from an object. This has been extended into temporal use as well, thus mart aydan (March month-ABL) means 'from March'. It also marks the source and the comparandum in a comparative construction. Furthermore, in uses specific to Tuvan among the Turkic languages, the ablative is used to mark the agent in certain passives and to give a partitive meaning. It is governed by certain postpositions as well.
While the accusative case in general is used to mark direct objects, it does not do this automatically in Tuvan. In fact, the accusative's primary function in Tuvan is to mark definiteness or specificity on direct objects. Furthermore, it make mark the subjects in some subordinate clauses, as well as the predicate itself in aother types. It can be used along with a third person possessive as a vocative and in some dialects its used to mark a causee over the dative case.
Contrary to other Tuvan cases, the allative case has basically one function, to mark direction wards a location, though it may also be used to denote motion around an object. This case is not descended from the Old Turkic allative case, but possibly arose from the word čak ('moment').
The Tuvan dative case serves to mark the recipient or indirect object of a verb. It is also used to mark an expressed causee in causative formations, as well as an expressed agent in passive formations. Tuvan also uses the dative instead of the locative case in the past and future to express location, and it can sometimes be used to express direction instead of the allative. It also marks the experiencer subject with certain adjectival predicates and is required on the object of other adjectival predicates.
The Tuvan genitive case's primary function is to mark the possessor in a possesive construction, followed by a noun with with a possessive suffix (see below). It can also be used to mark the subject in some subordinate clauses.
The locative case expresses location solely in the present-tense in Tuvan. This has been extended to temporal locations as well, in which case it is still used in the past tense.
A salient feature of Tuvan is that possessive constructions mark both the possessor and the possessum (thing possessed). The possessor in the clause takes the genitive case, whereas the possessum is marked with a special suffix corresponding to the number and person of the possessor. Some of these forms can be seen in the table below.
Tuvan also has a class of 'auxiliary nouns', which often indicate what would be indicated with prepositions and postpositions in other languages. Postpositions are found in Tuvan as well, but there is a formal difference in how the auxiliary nouns act when compared to the postpositions, so the two are treated as separate classes.
Nominative 1.POSS 2.POSS 3.POSS 1.PL.POSS 2.PL.POSS 3.PL.POSS English
xap xavïm xavïŋ xavï xavïvïs xavïŋar xavï 'bag'
küš küžüm küžüŋ küžü küžüvüs küžüŋer küžü 'strength, power'
The possessive markers precede the case markers, but they follow the plurality marker.
Tuvan has six pronouns, distinguishing two numbers (singular and plural) and three persons. Gender is not distinguished in the pronouns. The third singular form is also identical to the demonstrative 'that'. These pronouns are declined for all seven cases; the singular ones have certain irregularities in their declension patterns, but the plurals all decline regularly. The pronouns, in the nominative case, are summarized in the table below.
Pronoun Meaning
men 1st singular
sen 2nd singular
ol 3rd singular
bis(ter) 1st plural
siler 2nd plural
olar 3rd plural
Tuvan pronomial verbal markers can appear in two ways on verbs, either as enclitics or as suffixes. All main-clause verb forms take them as enclitics (except one of the past tense forms, to be described below), whereas all subordinate clauses use the suffix form. These markers, except for the third plural, are always required, whereas the pronoun is optional and frequently dropped; Tuvan is thus a pro-drop language.
In terms of tense-aspect-mood, Tuvan has an extensive number of affixes to express an extensive amounts of distinctions. Likewise, auxiliary verbs are also used to further increase the distinctions available. Some of these are described below.
Tuvan has two past tense categories, an 'assertive/definite' and a 'non-assertive/indefinite', past. Both of these are represented on the verb with an affix. The assertive past is the one exception to the use of the pronomial enclitics among main clause verbs in Tuvan. For most verbs, there is no clear-cut semantic distinction, though there are minimal contrasts that could be established for a few verbs. Generally, the non-assertive is the unmarked form, and refers to a general point in the past; it can also be used to express a point further back in the past, such as the English past perfect. The assertive, therefore, may refer to a recent or definite time in the past, and also refers back to things already introduced; in many people's speech, it occurs primarily with first person subjects. A full conjugation paradigm for the two past tenses can be seen in the table below.
Non-Assertive Past Assertive Past English
uškan men uštum I flew
uškan sen uštuŋ You flew
uškan uštu S/he flew
uškan bis uštuvus We flew
uškan siler uštuŋar You (pl.) flew
uškan(nar) uštu(lar) They flew
Non-past is expresed as one form in Tuvan, thus ažïdaar men can mean "I work" or "I will work". Non-past actions are commonly denoted by auxiliary verbs, which may express a progressive or non-progressive meaning.
Tuvan has six aspect markers on the verb, the iterative, used colloquially to mark expressive actions as well as iterative actions; the perfective; the resultative, used to mark and emphasize actions completed in the past, and used to emphasize the truth of a statement the hearer doubts (e.g. I did see you!); unaccomplished, used to mark an unaccomplished action and now mostly extinct. It carried a sense that the verb would be completed in the near future; emphatic, marked with reduplication, which adds emphasis to the verb or the connotation of a rapid/intense action; cessation, 'to stop doing X'.
Tuvan also marks an extensive set of modal categories on the verb. These include the conditional, marking conditional statements in the past and future, and used to mean 'in order to'; the concessive mood, corresponding to English 'even though' or 'although'; the conciliatory, or optative, which signals the concession or agreement on the part of the subject to perform an action; the desiderative; the evidential mood, which can also signal reported speech or the inadvertant, involuntary or unexpected nature of an action; the imperative mood.
Verbs are negated with a suffix. Tuvan also has a system of converbs, which can add shades of semantic meaning to the verb. Likewise, there is an extensive system of auxiliary verbs, which, when used with certain converbs, can add a further distinction in various tenses, aspects and moods. One example of this is where an auxiliary can be used to create a continuous meaning. Furthermore, other auxiliaries can add various shades of meaning, such as a self-benefactive voice, capabiliative mood, inchoative aspect, benefactive voice, etc. Some auxiliaries determine the meaning depending on the converb or semantic class of the verb, but most auxiliaries only have one meaning, despite the converb. A list of these auxiliaries, and their additional meanings, can be seen in the table below.
Auxiliary Meaning
al- self-benefactive voice or capabilative mood
ber- inchoative aspect or benefactive mood
bar- completitive/perfective action or translocative action (across space)
bol- possibilitive mood
čït- capabilitive mood
čoru - imperfective or durative aspect
egele- inchoative aspect
kag- 'already'
kel- cislocative
kir- completive or terminative aspect
kör- attemptive mood
olur- imperfective aspect

Miscellany

Samples

Spoken sample:
Conversation/interview
throat singing lullaby
More throat singing
Final throat singing
Tuvan storyteller telling an epic tale
Introduction to another epic tale
Written sample:
Тыва чоннуң эртинези – хөөмей
Делегейниң эң улуг күчулүг, чараш, арыг, байлак хемнерниң бирээзи – алдарлыг Енисейниң – Улуг Хемниң шуурап баткан ораны, делегейде чок дээн делгем чаагай Азия диптиң географтыг төвү, чүрээ, буурул баштыг Саян сыннары хаажылаан Тыва чурту бойдустуң эң ховар чурумалы, тураскаалы болуп турары дег, тываларны өске чоннардан ылгап, алдаржыдып, киискидип турар онзагай демдектер эвээш эвес.
(Excerpt from an essay about Tuvan throat singing)
Tyvan Wikipedia

Sources

Previous LotWs

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